A Life Lesson

“The world’s a big place. You can’t do or be everything, nor should you. Life is bigger than any one man. But when you read about other people’s lives, when you read their stories, you catch a glimpse of a world bigger than your own. You may never travel a hundred miles from where you were born, but if you read stories, you’ll get to see the entire world.”Steve Dublanica

It’s funny how your perception of the size of the world changes as you grow up. As a child, your house is your nation, the backyard your countryside, and the fences your national border. A play date at a friend’s house is the equivalent of travelling overseas, as you are whisked away to a foreign land bursting with strange and exotic sights, sounds and smells.

There are many times that I wish I could be transported back to this blissful ignorance of childhood. As our knowledge of the world ripens with age, so too does our responsibility as global citizens to act on the injustices that face us all. Poverty, famine, war, asylum seekers. As a university student studying in a first world country, these issues, like a difficult math equation, are almost impossible to fully grasp. Growing up in a prosperous environment, where both food on our plates and clothes on our backs are a careless given, it is difficult to fathom the hardships suffered by many people around the world. We are caught up in our own microcosmic bubbles. A bad day is when our phone prematurely runs out of battery before the sun sets, when we step in a puddle with our new Gucci heels, or the only milk left in the fridge is skim. First world problems.

And yet, when it’s all that we know, we can hardly be blamed in our exaggeration of these struggles. BCM 111 has opened my eyes to the world beyond our horizon. My global ‘consciousness’ has grown through exploration of key concepts including globalisation, transnational film and television, hybridisation and glocalisation. Furthermore, it is the insight into the lives of other people and their stories that have expanded the borders of my international knowledge exponentially. While this personal growth may seem like a drop of water in the ocean of truly tackling global issues, this education is what I believe to be the first step towards enacting real change, and to making a difference on the world stage.


Global Warming- Have You Thaw-ed About It?

My grandpa is a man of habit. Without fail, come 6:00 am on a weekend visit (when even the resident magpies are only just greeting a new day) the thunderous beat of military marching music compiled from the centuries reverberates down the hallway. This rude awakening, mischievously rousing all sleeping souls to consciousness, is followed by a perfectly cooked cheese soufflé for breakfast, made light and fluffy in an attempt to soften the trauma of reveille. Grandpa is also a man of firm beliefs; the youth of today are lazy, technology (especially the mobile phone) is distracting, and climate change is a political hoax.

While the former two may be considered blatant subjectivity, the last notion holds a more substantiated truth. In a superficial global media environment in which ‘objective truth’ appears to increasingly be an ideal rather than an attainable reality, fair and balanced reporting of such issues is often overshadowed by political and economic agendas. Climate change reporting in Australia certainly follows this trend, reported through the lens of politicians, pundits and commentators who frame the issue as a political conflict rather than a matter that requires an urgent, global-scale response. In an attempt to present an ‘objective’ view on climate change that is in line with journalism ethics of being “honest, fair and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information” (reading), an ironic conundrum has become apparent in associated media reporting. Over 90% of scientists worldwide agree that climate change is real. And yet the documentary A Burning Question, reveals that the media remains contradictory in its reporting of the issue by utilisinga form of informational bias known as ‘false balance’.

Climate Change- A political tool rather than an urgent issue?

Climate Change- A political tool rather than an urgent issue?

Evidence of climate change is now undeniable. Rather than addressing active responses to the issue, the media is stagnating in itsexploration of authenticity.For this reason it is little wonder that my grandpa, along with many others, remains sceptical of climate change. A balanced media perspective on the issue justifies this scepticism; however this approach needs to altered. Rather than those who hold the power to enact real change using climate change as a political tool for self-promotion and controversy, the media needs to address its pressing implications, such as the imminent effect of climate change on small island states in the Pacific.

While a healthy media should strive to present news with objectivity and balance, the reporting of climate change needs to be converted from a heated debate to a considered response.

Quirks of the Newsroom- The Tantalising Tale of the Tasty Tagine

The definition of ‘news’ varies from person to person. To me, news is my breakfast companion; the Sydney Morning Herald a perfect accompaniment to a bowl of cornflakes for a media student to start the day, intent on feeling informed on life outside the microcosmic bubble of university life.

While stories relating to politics and world crises seem almost obligatory brain food for a global citizen, it is the small, quirky reports that deliver the daily dose of the weird, whacky and wonderful by which I am most often engrossed.

Nothing says thankyou like your own pet camel

Nothing says thankyou like your own pet camel

My personal favourite remains to this day a small article within the world section of the SMH titled “France’s ship of the dessert ends up a savoury treat for oblivious family”. The story goes as follows. After receiving a baby camel from grateful Malian authorities following the successful military intervention to drive rebel back forces back, French Prime Minister Francois Hollande entrusted the animal to the care of a family near Timbuktu when it was deemed the creature was not suited to the Parisian way of life. In an unfortunate incident  of cross-culture misinterpretation regarding the ‘custody arrangement’, the camel was slaughtered by the family and feasted upon after being, according to local reports, “fashioned into a tasty tagine”.

Whilst the absurdity of the story had me in stitches, the article provided an amazing insight into modern news values and features.

New journalism is often described as a genre of writing that “falls between the traditional categories of fiction and journalism”. News cannot be defined as the straight edged truth as much as a series of standardised choices made by a news organisation in order to meet certain agendas. Amongst the key features of any ‘news’ is ‘narrativisation’, the process of turning a report into a story that can captivate an audience. Not only did the ‘tale of the tasty tagine’ perfectly encapsulate this notion, but the decision to include it in the paper in the first place reveals the hidden intricacies of editing. The story was situated directly underneath a large article concerning North Korea’s potential to test another nuclear warhead. Considering the meticulous placement of every item within any publication, does this pairing represent a deliberate editorial attempt by Fairfax to relieve a grave situation by placing such a light hearted story next door?

While news publications may differ in content, they remain remarkably similar in structure. Such deliberate editorial choices are just another part of the ‘production’ of news, made in an attempt to attract the largest audience and to generate the highest revenue. Regardless of motive, a good news story is one that engages a reader….and perhaps tickles your tastebuds at the same time.

Picture sourced from http://mbourbaki.blogspot.com.au/2010/11/artwriter-new-associate-of-art-market.html

Picture sourced from http://www.itv.com/news/update/2013-04-10/mali-orders-hollande-new-camel-after-first-gift-is-eaten/

Why isn’t the Koala a Real Bear?

Because it doesn’t have the right koalafications.

Sharing this joke with a group of mates in your local Aussie pub may see you escape shouting the next round of drinks, depending on how well your friends respond to the stereotypical pun. However if the same joke were to be repeated in, say Spain, you might see yourself greeted by the awkward silence of a bewildered crowd… and be lucky to escape the second coming of La Tomatina initiated by the bemused locals.

Comedy and humour are culturally specific. Whilst a person slipping on a banana peel is universally accepted as amusing, the more subtle and unique humour encapsulated within a comedy show from a specific country cannot be so easily translated across cultures. As Susan Purdie explains in her book Comedy: the Mastery of Discourse , comedy finds its niche in breaking rules of language and behaviour.  While all cultures may laugh at the same ‘rule’, such as the slapstick hilarity of the banana peel scenario, in many cases these ‘rules’ are context specific.

Kim's 'hornbag' looks were lost in translation by casting Selma Blair as Kim in the US version.

Kim’s ‘hornbag’ looks were lost in translation by casting Selma Blair as Kim in the US version.

Kath and Kim typifies a failed attempt to export a local Australian comedy series. Many key points of humour in the show fell short of laughs in the ‘copycat’ American version. For example, while self-proclaimed ‘hornbag’ Kim (played by Gina Riley) suffered constant jibes from her mother about her ‘muffin top’ in the Australian series, the irony of this situation was lost in translation by casting slender Selma Blair as Kim in the US version.

However, when the FORMAT of a comedy show, rather than the program in its entirety, is exported and adapted to suit another culture, the result can be very different.

Satirical panel game comedy show Good News Week was a huge success in Australia during both of its two runs between 1996 and 2012. Hosted by comedian Paul McDermott, the show drew its humour from Australian current affairs, topical news issues and important media and political figures.  Here is a typical example of McDermott’s opening monologue, in which he cleverly summarises the news of the week, in this case- Julia Gillard taking over leadership of the Labour Party in 2010.

With jabs and jibes specific to Australian culture, it is little wonder this show was well received, averaging a rating of 7.5/10 over its airtime.

Many people are unaware that Good News Week was originally based on British satirical panel game show Have I Got News for You which remains one of the leading television shows in British comedy to this day. Broadcast for over 40 complete series, the program was the first collective act to receive the Lifetime Achievement Award at the 2011 British Comedy Awards. Once again, this show drew its humour from current affairs, however in this scenario, from issues relevant to Britons.

While comedy and humour remain generally remain unique to a culture, it appears that the FORMAT of comedy is a product that, just as with many cultural forms, adheres to the modern notion of ‘glocalisation’, of fashioning a universal product to local preferences. Perhaps your safest bet in Spain would be a bull joke. They are usually well herd.

Taking a Back Seat on the World Stage

The glitz and the glamour of Hollywood. Where anything is possible. Where a normal day constitutes a visit to a café frequented by Will ATS%20Hollywood%20signSmith, a stroll down a promenade side by side with Blake Lively, and the discovery that Paris Hilton’s pet chihuahua has mistaken your handbag for its home.  ‘Hollywood’ evokes more than just a film label. It encapsulates an important crossroad for international film with a rich history, a prosperous past and an uncertain future. While Hollywood remains a central character on the world stage of transnational film production, its current decline represents to many a changing global dynamic as cultural “contra flows” emerge (Shaefer, Karan 2010) and “boundaries between…the national and the global culture” begin to blur (Thussu, 2006).

Hollywood developed in the early 1900s in an active effort by the US to combat the rising global popularity of the French film industry, dominated by the company Pathé. By the 1930s Hollywood was responsible for 80% of films screened around the world. Filmmakers gravitated to the area, attracted by its mild climate and consistent sunlight that allowed outdoor filming all year round.  Innovative technologies saw technicolour and stereophonic sound adopted on the big screen, and cinema became a “one stop” shop for entertainment and a national pastime.

The paradigm shift that has accompanied the decline of Hollywood since the 1960s cannot be solely attributed to any one factor, but has certainly been facilitated by the emergence of contra-flows and the rise of alternate film industries around the globe. While Hollywood continues to dominate the market share of box office hits around the world, other countries such as India, Nigeria, China and Japan are beginning to make their presence known on the world stage (Evans, 2013).

What most people don’t know is that it is Bollywood, not Hollywood that is the “world’s most prolific cinema factory”. Growing in revenue at a rate of 10% per year, the Indian based industry has tripled its gross profits since 2004. Both marketing and production costs are significantly lower in India, transforming the global film industry from an elitist specialty into a common undertaking throughout the world.

The importance of major geographical locations as ‘hubs’ for communication and cultural flows is diminishing in an era of global interconnectedness. Today’s films are the definition of multicultural. American crime drama film Drive was directed by a Dane, led by a Canadian and displayed influences from Italian and Japanese culture. The Matrix was filmed in Australia with a producer from Hollywood and a stunt coordinator from Hong Kong.

Drive and That Matrix-Transnational Productions under the 'Hollywood' façade.

Drive and That Matrix-Transnational Productions under the ‘Hollywood’ façade.

All of this begs the question raised by Curtin- “Is the modern Hollywood any more than simply a meeting place for important personnel?” (2003). Perhaps the glitz and glamour of Hollywood is losing its shine as the once extraordinary is now being relegated to the back seat faced with an age where anything is possible, anywhere, and at a lower price.

Pictures sourced from:



Self Preservation in an Age of Amalgamation


In days gone by, the world was conceived as a giant jigsaw puzzle. Each piece represented a country. Although all the pieces could be placed together to form the one picture, the final image remained fractured, with each segment isolated within its own boundaries.

While countries may be still separated by geographical and political barriers, in a way the world’s population behaves as a singular organism in which invisible products in the form of information, ideas and commentary flow fluidly around the globe.  Within this interconnected environment, ‘media capitals’ have emerged as centres of media activity, locations where complex information paths and products interact, and where cultural boundaries dissolve. Today, the frontrunners of the media landscape are cities that act as hubs for finance, production, and the distribution of media, including Bombay, Cairo, Hollywood and Hong Kong (Curtin, 2003).

However within this unified media ecology, it has become clear that the concept of “cultural essentialism” holds true, the idea that certain cultural traits and characteristics do not change over time. In particular, this concept can be embodied in the orientalist opposition between the east and the west.

The Australian reporting of a number of attacks on Indian students in Australia in 2009 caused international controversy, representing to many the begrudging acceptance of the west to shifts in media power to those media capitals in the east (Khorana, 2012). Australian newspapers, such as the Age, responded to the attacks by blaming Indian TV as creating ‘hysteria’, lacking in balance and reporting sensational and exaggerated facts. This scenario followed a string of controversial interactions between the two countries, including an alleged racist comment made by an Indian cricketer to an Australian player in 2008. Following on from the attacks, India proclaimed that Australia was an inherently racist country.

Such an incident reveals that, despite the cultural flows facilitated through media capitals and by globalisation, countries remain firm in defending their self-interests and cultural characteristics against external challengers.

Another clear example of countries asserting their cultural independence over the world stage is the controversy surrounding supposed weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. In 2003, the UN and the Bush government of the US declared that Saddam Hussein was in the possession of large stockpiles of WMD. The media itself became a weapon of “mass hysteria that created tremendous fear in the population”, before it was exposed in 2008 by the Senate Intellgience Committee that the Bush administration had misrepresented the intelligence in an attempt to justify the war. In this scenario, the paranoia of the US post 9/11 saw America take all possible measures to protect itself and its self-interests against international threats at the same time ignoring the facts.

As can be seen, while it is true in many respects that the world has become one entity through which products, ideas and cultures flow, it is clear that the concept of “cultural essentialism” holds true. Embodied in cultural differences and expressions of countries’ self-interests, perhaps the world really is still a giant jigsaw puzzle.

The Mixing Bowl of Modern Culture

Is MacDonalds contributing to the homogenisation of cultures around the world?

Travelling around Europe last year I was fascinated to discover that several of my friends differentiated capital cities not by their defining landmarks or historical monuments, but rather by the fond memories of the ‘golden arches’ they had visited. Rome’s colosseum was overshadowed by the stuffed ‘Pizzarotto’, The Eiffel Tower melted into the background of Paris when budgeting Australian tourists caught wind of ‘le Croque McDo’. McDonalds: the one stop fast food shop for apprehensive travellers. A universal icon, global corporation and prime example of globalisation in action.

However, while on the surface McDonalds may reflect standardised international tastes in a global mixing bowl of cultures, national menus containing products and flavours specific to each country display that societal traditions continue to defy cultural homogenisation. Cultures have merely embodied the concept of hybridisation-the mixing of the old and new, the traditional and the modern, in an attempt to make imported products relatively unique to a local place.

This cultural hybridisation extends beyond a culinary lens to encompass all aspects of popular culture; from films, to sport, music and lifestyle. Dr April Henderson’s article Dancing Between Islands: Hip Hop and the Samoan Diaspora explores the “cross-fertilisation” of hip hop from its origins in urban California to many locations where Samoans have settled. Following their original involvement in street dance and rap in California in the 80s, Henderson explains that Samoan dancers developed a calibre of “popping” equal to that of the US form. Bonnie Tamati, a young Samoan woman who took part in the female popping competition at the 2000 Aotearoa Hip Hop Summit in Christchurch, reinterpreted Samoan dance moves to the beat of a heavy bass funk.  Her performance received enthusiastic praise and recognition from the audience who appreciated how Tamati had tied both traditional and modern art forms together, breaking down cultural barriers in the process (Henderson 2006, p 189). As is the case with the global transmission of McDonalds, the hybridisation of two seemingly opposing cultures in this scenario demonstrates the coexistence of both traditional and modern culture and the intrinsic formation of new identities.

Closer to home, The Warrumpi Band were the first Indigenous musicians to release a rock song in the Luritja dialect of the Aboriginal language, marking an important step in hybridising Indigenous and modern Australian culture.

Today we all know Gurrumul as a prominent figure in Australian music. While his highly emotive songs are sung in the traditional Aboriginal languages of Galpu, Djambarrpuynu and Gumatj, they also contain an “extraordinary combination of traditional Aboriginal culture, modern and gospel church music and other musical influences” in a style that has journalist Tony Cornwell has described as having the ability to “transcend cultural barriers”.

From these examples, it is clear that globalisation is leading, not to the extinction or homogenisation of traditional cultures; but rather, just as with any process of evolution, a unique combination and mutation of both the new and old in a move that is redefining cultures and identities around the globe. I wouldn’t be surprised if the next time I visited my local McDonalds, kangaroo kebabs were at the top of the menu.